Paxil is the trade name of paroxetine by GlaxoSmithKline which is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) type of antidepressant. It was approved for Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) in 1999 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in 2001. It checks unbalanced chemicals in the brain related to depression and anxiety disorders. FDA also approved it in 1992. Its active ingredient is paroxetine hydrochloride.
This treatment is also recommended for the treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), (PTSD) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders and (PMDD) Premenstrual Dysphoric disorder. These medication energies the person and mood, and helps in the decrease of the panic attacks, fear and unwanted thoughts in mind.
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors are commonly used as antidepressant medication. These are the primary and first choice for the treatment of the depression as it has few side effects. Phobias like agoraphobia and social phobia are also diagnosed using the SSRI.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder occurs when a person experiences a high mood swing, i.e., anxiety or worry for at least six months followed by, Fatigue, Difficulty in concentration, Muscle tension, difficulty in falling asleep. Women are more affected than the number of men with higher risk in childhood and adulthood. Some physical symptoms like headaches and stomachaches can be found
The treatment for this can also be done alone or combined with therapy like yoga, meditation, and exercise.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder takes place when a person has either uncontrollable thoughts or behaviors repeatedly or sometimes both. Obsessions or compulsions involves things like cleanness and thoughts about sex, religion and body parts or the thoughts like fear of getting dirty, about getting hurt, making things in exact order, unfound suspicion about the loyalty of the partner.
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders (PTSD)
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder occurs after a traumatic situation in which a person naturally feels afraid. It develops in the person who had a shocking, scary or dangerous event. Almost everyone must have suffered from an appalling incident or a tragedy. Some overcome the conflicts naturally and who could not come naturally are treated with PTSD treatment. Symptoms should have been from a month excessively.
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder is a disorder commonly found in women with high depressive symptoms; tensions before menstruation caused a week before the period starts. 5% Women are affected by this disorder. The symptoms include panic attacks, mood swings, crying, low energy, sleeping trouble, out of control feeling, physical symptoms (cramps, breast tenderness, headaches, and muscle pain.
Usage of Paxil:
Paxil should be swallowed as whole without chewing, crushing or breaking it. Paxil should be taken only under the prescription of a doctor solely as dosage is based on the age of a person and medical condition of a person. A single dose of Paxil is recommended in morning. Paxil 40mg daily is prescribed for the treatment of OCD. If the dosage needed to be stronger then there should be at least a gap of a week. For the treatment of GAD and PTSD, the dosage recommended for an adult is 20mg a day and can be increased with a difference of a week to 50mg a day.
For the treatment of severe renal or hepatic impairment recommended dosage is 10mg a day to 40mg a day. Adult patient suffering from panic disorder should take 10mg dose at first and then can increase the dosage as suggested by the doctor. The dosage in any case should not be 40mg a day. Do not stop the medication until the doctor asks to do so. Sometimes the condition after the dosage gets worse so it should be brought into the consideration of a doctor.
The dosage of Paxil should not be missed. In case you miss the dosage then immediately take the dosage but if it is the time of next dose then skip this dose and follow the next dose schedule. Do not overdose in any case it may cause you severe harm. The patients who are breastfeeding should also consult the doctor immediately as Paxil passes into your milk and which may harm the baby.
Is it safe for children?
Children should not be given this medicine without the strict consultation from the specialist doctor. It should be kept out of the reach of the children. In 2007, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warned about the usage of pail under the age of 18 as it possibly increased the risk of “suicidal attempts and suicidal thinking”.
How it works:
SSRIs were available in United States in the 1980s and are popular in comparison to other anti depressants due to its effectiveness and safe usage. Paxil activates the neurotransmitters, which is released by the nerves and travels to nearby nerves. Neurotransmitters are thought to be the communication system of a brain, and according to the experts, the imbalance between the Serotonin (one of the neurotransmitter) is the primary cause of depressions.
Paxil helps in preventing the reuptake of neurotransmitter by the nerve cells after the release, and it increases the Serotonin and can lead to withdrawal symptoms of the depressions or other severe disorders. The result of Paxil doesn’t immediately show the improvement as it usually takes some days or weeks too. Sometimes it takes months to show up full result.
The side effect of Paxil:
Paxil also has some common adverse reactions which include:
- A headache
- Weight changes
- Decreased sex drive
- Difficulty having an orgasm
- Ringing in your ears
These are some common and normal side effects. There are some worse side effects also which should immediately be concerned with the doctor including:
- Cannot keep still
- Easy bruising
- Irregular heartbeat
There is an emergency need to call for medical help if the symptom is:
- Black stools
- Eye pain, redness
- Vomit like a coffee color
- Vision changes
This medication increases the serotonin and may cause a severe condition of toxicity or serotonin syndrome. So, it is safe to consult your doctor about the medicines you take before also before having the Paxil. A painful, prolonged erection can be faced in males which are rare but dangerous too.
Precautions before taking the dosage:
Paxil should not be used during pregnancy as using Paxil during the pregnancy may harm the unborn baby. Paxil should not be used with monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor, and there should be a gap of 2 weeks before starting the Paxil after stopping MAO and vice versa.
This medicine affects the sperm count in the men, so if you are planning a baby, then you should concern a doctor before using the drug. The usage of the medicine should not be suddenly stopped before completing the medication course as it may reduce the chances of the withdrawal symptoms.
The patient using paroxetine should not use alcohol and alcoholic products. Moreover, do not start or stop this medicine without the proper prescription of a doctor.
Tablets should be stored or kept at a room temperature of 59° F - 86° F. The oral suspension should be stored at a temperature below 77 ° F. Paxil should not be kept in light and the bottle of Paxil should be tightly closed.
In a nutshell, Paxil (paroxetine) is a drug which is used to treat depressions, PTSD, OCD, premenstrual dysphoric disorder and other disorders. It is an SSRI which should only be used under the strict prescription and consultation of the doctor. Paxil should not use it with MAOIs, and blood thinners. This medicine should be used wisely or otherwise it may cause severe negative results. The side effects, warning, precautions should be concerned before prior usage. The usage of this drug in children or younger age is dangerous.
Medications for Depression
Depression (either clinical or major depressive disorder) is a severe mood disorder. It is accompanied by negative thoughts, sadness, and a change in attitude. Depression affects your thinking, what you feel, and even how you deal with regulate activities like eating, sleeping, or work.
It's okay to feel sad occasionally, but if you're always in a sad state, and it affects the way you love your life, then you may be clinically depressed. Some cases of depression even lead to severe psychological disorders like schizophrenia, while others get so bad that the victims end up committing suicide.
This is why it is necessary to find a way to reduce depression so you’ll have a chance to live a normal life. There are different methods available for treating depression, but the most common one is the use of specific medication.
Even though medication can be useful in treating the symptoms of depression, not every antidepressant works the same way. You should always see a doctor before you take any medication for depression. The doctor will prescribe medication based on your symptoms, the potential side effects, and a host of other factors.
Types of Depression Medications
Below is a list of few medications that help in treating depression and other anxiety disorders.
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
SSRIs help with depression by regulating the serotonin levels in the brain. It does this by blocking specific nerve cells in the brain from reabsorbing the serotonin. This means higher levels of serotonin causing your mood to improve. Some examples of SSRIs are sertraline, fluoxetine, citalopram, paroxetine, and escitalopram. SSRIs have side effects like a fever as compared to other antidepressants. This doesn’t mean they don’t have their share of side effects, which includes weight gain, insomnia or sleepiness, and sexual dysfunction.
Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors (SNRIs)
SNRIs include duloxetine and venlafaxine. They are notable for their dual-action mechanism. First, they block certain cells in the brain from being able to reabsorb two neurotransmitters – serotonin and norepinephrine, which in turn causes their levels to increase. Like every other medication, side effects may vary, and they may include anything from a headache, weight gain, insomnia, stomach upset, sexual dysfunction and may cause a slight increase in blood pressure. SNRIs are considered the first line of treatment for anxiety disorders while SSRI’s are the preferred first line of treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorders.
Benzodiazepines are preferred in the short-term management of anxiety, or as an additional medication for dealing with treatment-resistant anxiety disorders. Benzodiazepines class includes diazepam, clonazepam, alprazolam, and lorazepam. They are effective in decreasing muscular tension, in making you feel relaxed, and for dealing with other physical symptoms of anxiety. However, they aren’t recommended for patients who have PTSD. Long-term use of this antidepressant can lead to dependence, plus a host of other problems.
Norepinephrine (Noradrenaline) Reuptake Inhibitors (NRIs)
NRIs works like other depression medications by increasing the level of certain chemicals in the body. Although they’ve been reported to work well for depression, on another hand they aren’t that effective in treating anxiety. Additionally, since it works by increasing noradrenaline, it may cause depressed and especially anxious patients to act more aggressively.
Because of the concerns surrounding the long-term use of benzodiazepines, some doctors prefer to prescribe tricyclic antidepressants such as imipramine, amitriptyline, and nortriptyline. They help in dealing with some anxiety disorders (apart from Social Anxiety Disorder). They also have considerable side effects such as constipation, blurry vision, dry mouth, orthostatic hypotension (a condition where your blood pressure drops once you stand), and urinary retention.
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)
Monoamine oxidase is an enzyme present between the neurons. It causes neurotransmitter oxidation, which renders them ineffectual. MAOIs targets and destroys this enzyme.
Monoamine oxidase is also present in the intestine. It prevents harmful tyramine from getting into the bloodstream. Tyramine can lead to an increase in blood pressure if absorbed into the bloodstream. It is found in certain foods.
MAOIs also have their side effects such as anxiety, weight gain, constipation, sexual dysfunction, excessive sedation, and dry mouth. Your doctor may prescribe this medication when all other forms of depression medication stop working.
How Medications for Depression work
Most of these medications work using the same basic principle; they alter certain chemical concentrations in the brain so you can achieve the right balance needed to live a relatively regular life. The most commonly targeted brain chemicals include serotonin, dopamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine, norepinephrine, adrenergic receptors, and acetylcholine.
Tips for Dealing with Depression
- Stay committed to the medication
- Finding the right medication might take some time
- Don’t hesitate to ask for help
Antidepressants are the medications used to treat the depression and other several diseases. Every antidepressant is made for different, and this is recommended to use these according to the prescriptions of doctor and do not overtake the dose of antidepressants.