Causes of Mental and Behavioral Disorders Due to Caffeine
The group includes amphetamines and caffeine. Amphetamines include ephedrine, d-methamphetamine (ISE), which is also used for smoking. They are indirect monoamine agonists, they release norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine from the presipnatic endings. Caffeine, theobromine and theophylline block adenosine receptors and induce the movement of intracellular calcium, as well as inhibit the phosphodiesterase enzyme. They are antagonists of adenosine receptors.
Symptoms of Mental and Behavioral Disorders Due to Caffeine
Increased efficiency, activity, reduced fatigue, high spirits, increased concentration of attention, decreased appetite, insomnia, convulsions, tremors. The lethal dose of caffeine is 100 spoons in terms of instant coffee.
Somatic symptoms include palpitations and angina pectoris, arrhythmia and extrasystoles, expansion of the bronchi, anorexia, nausea, diarrhea, metallic taste in the mouth, diuretic effect, and soreness of the chest. Psychopathological disorders include narcolepsy, stereotyping, asthenia and anxiety.
Mental and physical dependence.
Headache, chills, tremors, autonomic disorders, changes in potency, diarrhea, abdominal pain.
Amphetamine psychosis, similar to an acute manic episode, with an influx of vivid visual, olfactory and tactile hallucinations and increased imagination. Paranoid psychoses with delusions of persecution and depressive episodes.
Usually not characteristic.
Residual state and psychotic disorder with delayed debut
Repeated amphetamine psychoses on the background of anxiety.
Diagnosing Mental and Behavioral Disorders Due to Caffeine
The diagnosis is made on the basis of history, intoxication clinic.
Differentiation should be with affective and schizoaffective disorder, mental and behavioral disorders due to the use of other psychoactive substances, in particular cocaine. Visual, tactile and olfactory hallucinations are not characteristic of affective and schizoaffective disorders. Unlike other addiction diseases, an overdose of amphetamine retains a clear consciousness and orientation.
Treating Mental and Behavioral Disorders Due to Caffeine
Symptomatic treatment, including detoxification, small doses of haloperidol or chlorpromazine, temperature control, the introduction of beta-receptor blockers. Psychotherapy and behavioral therapy.