What is Dementia in diseases caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)?
Dementia is a chronic or progressive brain disease in which the higher cortical functions are impaired, including memory, thinking, orientation, understanding, counting, learning ability, language and judgment. Consciousness is not darkened. Symptoms are present for at least 6 months, although a more progressive onset of dementia is possible. Long-term medication, vitamin B12 and B6 deficiencies, metabolic imbalances due to kidney and liver diseases, as well as endocrine pathology, vascular pathology, depression, infections, head injuries, alcoholism, and tumors contribute to dementia. When diagnosing dementia, additional symptoms are also noted, such as delirium, hallucinations, and depression.
Causes of Dementia in diseases caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Etiology and pathogenesis
The human immunodeficiency virus may itself cause encephalitis and subsequent dementia, but this group also includes processes caused by a decrease in the activity of the immune system, for example, as a result of sepsis or lymphoma. Damage to the brain is diffuse, and the likely focal symptoms are more likely to indicate complications and pathology.
The spread is due to the exponential epidemic process characteristic of HIV infection itself.
Symptoms of Dementia in diseases caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
The development of dementia is possible at any age. Disease duration from several months to 2 years. Clinical features of dementia may resemble Alzheimer’s and Pick’s disease, but a specific feature is increasing asthenia and apathy, which are subjectively hard experienced by patients.
Diagnosis of Dementia in diseases caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
The diagnosis is based on the identification of cognitive deficits and serological data. A HIV study of all dementia of a different origin is recommended due to the high risk of HIV dementia being similar to other dementiating disorders.
HIV dementia has to be differentiated from all dementiating processes, and differentiation is possible only serologically. In this regard, a blood test for HIV is recommended for any case of dementia, in particular Alzheimer’s disease.
Treatment of Dementia in diseases caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Although there is no specific treatment for HIV, symptomatic treatment is possible.